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Disease Outbreaks

WHO disease outbreak news
  1. On 17 July 2019, the Director-General convened the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (IHR) to review the situation on the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
  2. From 1 through 31 May 2019, the National International Health Regulations (IHR) Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 14 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) infection, including five deaths. Of the 14 cases reported, four cases were associated with two separate clusters. Cluster 1 involved two cases (case no. 6 and case no. 7) living in the same household in Alkharj, Riyadh, and cluster 2 involved one patient (case no. 9) and one healthcare worker (case no. 11) in Riyadh.

    The link below provides details of the 14 reported cases:
  3. The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in North Kivu and Ituri provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo continues this past week with a similar transmission intensity to the previous week.
  4. The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in North Kivu and Ituri provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo continued with a steady transmission intensity this week. Indicators demonstrated the early signs of transmission easing in intensity in some major hotspots, such as Butembo and Katwa. The current hotspots are the health zones of Beni, Mabalako, and Mandima, with some cases being exported from these hotspot areas into unaffected health zones. There is a slight but notable increase in the number of new cases occurring in areas that previously had lower rates of transmission, such as the Komanda, Lubero, and Rwampara/ Bunia health zones. On 30 June, a case who had travelled overland from Beni was confirmed in Ariwara, more than 460 kilometres north of Beni, towards the borders with Uganda and South Sudan. This is the first confirmed case in this health zone, and a response team was deployed from Bunia to investigate and implement public health actions in Ariwara. Uganda and South Sudan have mobilized quickly, building on the preparedness efforts during the last months. Arua district in Uganda shares a border with Ariwara health zone, with high volume of trade and population movement. The Arua District Task Force in Arua mobilized on 2 July to agree on a plan of action, the Ministry of Health (MoH) immediately dispatched the National Rapid Response Team for needs assessment, and the vaccination team from Kasese was also dispatched to Arua district on 3 July to start vaccinating the front-line health workers. In South Sudan, WHO and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) convened a joint meeting with implementing partners on 2 July to plan and coordinate field missions. Joint teams were dispatched to Yei State on 3 July to support operational readiness activities.

    In the 21 days from 12 June through 02 July 2019, 73 health areas within 20 health zones reported new cases, representing 11% of the 664 health areas within North Kivu and Ituri provinces (Figure 2). During this period, a total of 285 confirmed cases were reported, the majority of which were from the health zones of Mabalako (30%, n=85), Beni (27%, n=76), Mandima (8%, n=23), Lubero (6%, n=16) and Kalunguta (5%, n=14). As of 02 July 2019, a total of 2369 EVD cases, including 2275 confirmed and 94 probable cases, were reported (Table 1). A total of 1598 deaths were reported (overall case fatality ratio 68%), including 1504 deaths among confirmed cases. Of the 2369 confirmed and probable cases with known age and sex, 56% (1334) were female, and 29% (691) were children aged less than 18 years. Cases continue to rise among health workers, with the cumulative number infected rising to 130 (6% of total cases).
  5. On 25 April 2019, the local administration in Larkana district was alerted by media reports of a surge in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases among children in Ratodero Taluka, Larkana district, Sindh province, Pakistan. A screening camp was initially established at Taluka’s main hospital. Later, screening was expanded to other health facilities including selected Rural Health Centers (RHCs) and Basic Health Units (BHUs). HIV rapid test kits that were initially used were replaced with pre-qualified WHO test kits.

    From 25 April through 28 June 2019, a total of 30,192 people have been screened for HIV, of which 876 were found positive. Eighty-two per cent (719/876) of these were below the age of 15 years. During the screening, several risk factors were identified, including: unsafe intravenous injections during medical procedures; unsafe child delivery practices; unsafe practices at blood banks; poorly implemented infection control programs; and improper collection, storage, segregation and disposal of hospital waste.
  6. The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the North Kivu and Ituri provinces continues at a stable pace this week. Although response operations were temporarily interrupted in Beni following two days of insecurity in the surrounding areas, operations have largely resumed. However, in the town of Musienene, violent threats persist against healthcare workers (HCW) and local security forces providing assistance to the response efforts. Furthermore, response activities in Kambau health area, Manguredjipa health zone were also suspended following security incidents.

    Of growing concern this week, are the current hotspots of Mabalako, particularly the Aloya health area, and Mandima (Figure 1), which were the first health zones to report EVD cases in August/September 2018. Sporadic reintroduction events in areas such as Vuhovi, which had not reported any new cases in the past 24 days, further compound the evolving situation. Other areas experiencing a similar resurgence in EVD cases after a period of prolonged absence include Komanda and Masereka.
  7. This week saw a continued, gradual decrease in the number of new Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases from the hotspots of Katwa and Butembo compared to the previous weeks. However, these encouraging signs are offset by a marked increase in case incidence in Mabalako Health Zone, and especially in Aloya Health Area (Figure 1). While the spread of EVD to new geographic areas remains low, in the health zones of Bunia, Lubero, Komanda and Rwampara, recent reintroduction events illustrate the high risks in previously affected areas. Along with the rise in cases in Mabalako, there was also an accompanying increase in healthcare worker (HCW) and nosocomial infections. These findings highlight the ongoing need to comprehensively strengthen the infection prevention and control measures in the various healthcare facilities operating in these areas. The occurrence of EVD infections in these health areas also place a strain on the already limited security resources needed to facilitate access for effective response activities to continue.

    In addition to operational challenges encountered on the ground by healthcare workers during the past ten months, the overall EVD outbreak response effort is confronting substantial difficulty in maintaining scale in the context of a US $54 million funding shortage. Without adequate funding to fill this gap, response activities will be compromised, negatively impacting the entire response, resulting in a drastic reduction in vital health services available and a cessation of operations during a critical time of the outbreak. Member States and other donors are strongly encouraged to help meet this funding gap in order to ensure that hard won progress in containing this EVD outbreak will not suffer a potentially devastating setback due to financial limitations.
  8. The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) continues to show a decrease in the number of new cases in hotspots such as Katwa, Beni and Kalunguta health zones. However, in other areas such as Mabalako and Butembo, moderate rates of transmission continue. With ongoing EVD transmission within communities in 12 health zones in North Kivu and Ituri provinces, factors such as persistent delays in case detection, approximately a third of cases dying outside of Ebola treatment or transit centres, and high population mobility, pose a high risk of geographical spread both within the DRC and to neighbouring countries. This was highlighted by the recent exportation of cases to Uganda – the first confirmed cases detected outside of North Kivu and Ituri province since the onset of the outbreak over 10 months ago. For more information, please see Disease Outbreak News on EVD in Uganda

    Weekly decrease in the incidence of new cases have been reported in several health zones; however, increase or a continuation of the outbreak has been observed in others (Figure 1). In the 21 days, between 22 May to 11 June 2019, 62 health areas within 12 health zones reported new cases, representing 9% of the 664 health areas within North Kivu and Ituri provinces (Figure 2). During this period, a total of 212 confirmed cases were reported, the majority of which were from the health zones of Mabalako (33%, n=69), Butembo (18%, n=39), Katwa (14%, n=30) Mandima (11%, n=23) and Beni (9%, n=20). Single confirmed cases were also reported from Rwampara and Komanda health zones this past week following a prolonged period since the last reported case, with both cases acquiring the infection in the aforementioned hotspots.
  9. On 11 June 2019, the Ugandan Ministry of Health (MoH) has confirmed a case of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Kasese district, Uganda. The patient is a 5-year-old child from the Democratic Republic of the Congo who travelled with his family from Mabalako Health Zone in Democratic Republic of the Congo after attending, on 1 June 2019, the funeral of his grandfather (confirmed EVD case on 2 June 2019). On 10 June 2019, the child and the family entered the country through Bwera border post and sought medical care at Kagando hospital where health workers identified Ebola as a possible cause of illness. The child was transferred to Bwera Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) for management. The confirmation of Ebola Virus was made on 11 June 2019 at the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI), and the child has deceased in the early hours of 12 June 2019. Two other suspected cases, a 50-year-old female (grandmother of the first case) and 3-year-old male (younger brother of the first case) part of the family members who travelled together with the first confirmed child were also admitted in the same ETU and were confirmed for EVD by UVRI on 12 June 2019. The 50 year-old-female died during the night between 12 and 13 June. 27 other contacts have been identified and are being monitored. Healthcare workers from both health care facilities where the child was treated have been previously vaccinated.

    All three confirmed cases are imported from Democratic Republic of the Congo and belong to the same family who travelled together from Mabalako Health Zone, an area currently affected by Ebola outbreak in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. To date, they remain as a single episode of EVD in Uganda, and the geographical spread in Uganda appears to be limited to one district near Democratic Republic of the Congo border. Further investigations are ongoing both in Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo to assess the full extent of the outbreak.
  10. On 23 May 2019, WHO received notification through the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) of the detection of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) from an environmental sample collected on 20 April 2019 in a hospital in Northern Cameroon which borders Borno state in Nigeria and Chad.

Jumlah Pengunjung: 68817

  • Kemaskini Akhir : 05 Disember 2017.